My first night in Boston, I was picked up at the South End train station by Judy, a gray-haired woman with deep brown eyes and wire-frame glasses. My new neighborhood was swathed in darkness. But the ivy-covered brick buildings still struck me with awe as we walked down Dartmouth Street, my wheeled suitcase bumping over the brick sidewalk like an eager puppy. Nothing looked like what I knew back home in Michigan.
Links: Commercial Rent Control, Residential High-Rises, Black Gentrifier, Warning Maps, Saving Art & Serving Residents
There are so many articles about gentrification lately, here are a few summaries with links:
- Hypergentrification & the Disappearance of Local Business – Governing.com
A need to reinstate commercial rent control that went away in 1963.
- How Miami Fought Gentrification and Won (for Now) – Governing.com
Allowing developers to build high-rises downtown means long-time residents in older buildings don’t get displaced.
- I’m a Black Gentrifier in Harlem – and it’s not a good feeling – The Guardian
An African-American “transplant” in Harlem shares how she invisibilizes the displacement of the local community.
- New Map Tool Can Serve As Gentrification Warning System – Next City
Researchers use data from the U.S. Census, American Community Survey and others to visualize changes over time, revealing factors like employment density, percentage of renter households, non-white population and change in college-educated adult population. Neighborhoods that have easy access to rail transit, pre-1950s housing stock and rising housing prices are especially at risk of losing low-income households. And it’s not just low-income communities that are at risk: Higher-income areas with low-income households in the mix are rapidly losing that population.
- Gentrification in Overdrive on 14th Street (Washington DC) – Washington Post
Excitement about economic growth and hot new restaurant and bar scene, but what about art galleries and businesses that serve the residents.
We Must Not Give in to Economic Segregation
The following Next City article discusses the correlation between gentrification and the level of stress in a community.
Are You a Helicopter Parent? Blame Gentrification ~ The high cost of living is driving upwardly mobile urban families mad.
They are helicopter parents.
For all the attention these close-buzzing moms and dads get in the media, helicopter parenting is actually misunderstood. It’s not a set of values. It’s a nervous condition. And one of the chief causes of this widespread malady is the rising cost of being a middle- or upper-middle-class parent in an American city. Read more…
The following Next City article discusses the decreasing Latino population in San Francisco’s Mission district, the exorbitant rising rents, and an interesting Legacy Business Historic Preservation Fund.
Is a Community-Minded Business Model Doomed in Gentrifying San Francisco?
According to one longtime Mission District entrepreneur, “the new residents take pictures in front of the murals, but they don’t know the people in the murals.” (AP Photo/Ben Margot)
When Carlos Navarro decided to try his hand at running a karate studio, it was never about the money. He was looking to give neighborhood kids a positive, uplifting activity — an alternative to falling in with gangs or making other harmful life choices. He decided to charge each client a case-by-case price, based on need. It may not be the soundest business model, but Navarro knew when he started that if it could work, it was worth trying, to better his community. That was over 40 years ago.
Since it opened, Navarro’s Academy of Martial Arts & Bodybuilding Gym has been at the same location in San Francisco’s Mission District. In addition to karate, Navarro’s offers classes in Muay Thai kickboxing, Brazilian jujitsu and Eskrima, a traditional Filipino martial art. There’s aerobics too. He still charges students only what they can afford. Read more…
Excerpted from The Equity Factor in Next City online.
At the northern tip of Queens lies a peninsula called Halletts Point. To some it’s an “eyesore” of poverty, but to developers, it’s “one of the most magical, outstanding sites in New York City.”
For many nearby public housing residents, the proposed transformation had all the makings of a familiar script: development and upheaval, followed by wealth and higher-paying jobs open predominantly to newcomers and increased inequality.
However, a pioneering community benefits arrangement— one that sets aside quality jobs for local residents both during and after construction — could see “gentrification” play out differently in Hallets Point. Read more…
Browsing the awesome repository of the Institute of Local Self-Reliance, I came across a great article from…2002! Maybe now is the time for these strategies to become mainstream.
by Stacy Miller, Institute for Local Self-Reliance
Rising commercial rents are generally a good thing; they are an indication of the health of a business district and encourage landlords and banks to invest in building improvements.
But in some communities, commercial rents are rising too far too fast. Often this sudden run-up is driven by chain retailers, which discover the appeal of an area and sweep in by the dozens, offering above-market rents for choice spots and sparking a frenzy of speculation. Landlords raise rents across the board and opt not to renew leases for existing tenants in order to attract a national brand. Banks are often willing to lend building owners more capital at better terms if the lessee is a big-name tenant rather than an independent business, no matter how successful. Read more…
Below is Part 2 in a series written by Alexander M. Padro, founding Board Chair and as Executive Director of Shaw Main Streets in Washington, DC, since 2003. Part 1 discusses the strategies their district implemented; Part 2 below describes one case study of a successful Shaw community business owner.
New Arrivals Have Made Shaw More Diverse
There has not been the type of widespread displacement of low and moderate income people of color during Shaw’s revitalization that has been seen in other neighborhoods and cities. Significant efforts on the part of elected officials, nonprofits, and others, and nine factors and tools—empty lots for new projects, affordability requirements on public land, planned unit developments, tenant protection laws, property tax caps, housing vouchers, historic district designation, and the commitment of nonprofit and faith-based property owners to stay in the neighborhood—made this possible.
There has, however, been a decrease in the percentage of the neighborhood’s overall African American population. In 1990, parts of the neighborhood had over 65% African American residents. These same areas dropped to just over 51% in the 2010 census, paralleling the city’s overall change in demographics. This has primarily been due to an increase in total population resulting from an influx of residents moving into new apartment buildings and condominiums, and new owners of single family homes sold by longtime African American owners who took advantage of once-in-a-lifetime wealth creation opportunities; homes originally purchased for less than $25,000 were sold unrenovated for $500,000. At the same time, residents of rooming houses were displaced when the houses they lived in were sold for conversion into single family homes or multi-family condos. Read more…
In a little more than two decades, the Wine Country city of Healdsburg has transformed from the fading buckle on California’s prune belt into a picturesque town square with caviar-tart-serving restaurants, a couple dozen wine tasting venues and $400-per-night hotel rooms that draw international jet-setters.
Healdsburg’s turnaround has been too successful. Its fading affordability has turned this 11,000-person city into a cautionary tale for how a regional economic boom can reshape even the towns on its fringes. Healdsburg leaders are now trying to figure out how to keep the vineyard workers, teachers and waiters that made the city such an attractive food and wine mecca in the first place. (excerpted from SF Chronicle)
While some towns are using the Main Streets approach to become successful, some are using it to actually temper the negative effects of too much success.
- availability of empty lots and parking lots for new housing (a minimum of 30% of all units constructed on such parcels are required to meet affordable housing stipulations)
- affordability requirements on public land
- planned unit developments (PUD) zoning relief for taller buildings with more units
- amazingly strong tenant protection laws
- property tax caps on owner-occupied and senior homes
- housing vouchers for existing residents to stay in renovated and rebuilt housing
- historic district designation to prevent demolition of residential homes
- commitment of nonprofit and faith-based property owners to stay in the neighborhood
After our last call, Laura kindly emailed me various Main Streets handbooks for getting started, and then today we had another call. A lot of the info in the handbooks I learned at the National Main Streets Conference, but there is always more to learn, and do.
There’s A LOT of material, so here are the homework items that apply to us right now:
>> Take stock of the town’s businesses. There’s no precise way to do this, but we can get a pretty good idea if we:
- Walk the downtown streets and list each business, categorized by type, target demographic, and relative popularity/success (if known).
- Go to the city government offices (often the Financial or Business office) for a list of active business licenses.
- Research any other demographic studies recently conducted by developers.
>> Find out the business district’s zoning. For Fairfax, we found them in the Town of Fairfax website > Government > Town Code > Municipal Code of Ordinances > Zoning > CC Central Commercial Zone. We have a few good ordinances in place already, including regulated first-floor offices in retail zones, liquor stores, theaters, etc. so that there may be a healthy mix of business types.
Often you can just google your town’s website, and dig for the zoning codes. Note which types of businesses are Principally Permitted (these types can set up shop easily, anywhere) versus Conditional Uses (need a permit so that they can’t pop up anywhere). A good ordinance for downtown is when first floor spaces are reserved for retail (which attract shoppers) or businesses that the majority of the community want to use, as opposed to random businesses or countless real estate offices. (You’ve probably seen some popular resort towns with way too many real estate storefronts where you wished there were shops.)
>> Gather a list of business property owners. We can go ourselves to the county public records, but it can be a lot faster to ask a realtor friend to put in a request for your downtown’s city blocks. Then, we can get all the reports in one swoop instead of digging for each type of document for each type of property.
>> Identify well-liked, like-minded elected officials. The best way to find these folks is by asking around, but we can also do a little detective work looking at past City Council meeting minutes to see how they have voted for similar issues (e.g., preservation, environment, open space, local businesses, etc.). Another trick we learned was by viewing Council meeting video archives to see which government officers have a cool vibe. Qualitative, but important!
Fairfax has meeting minutes and video posted: Town of Fairfax website > Government > Town Council > Meeting Archive. Voila!
>> Onboard a core group of early supporters. For Fairfax, our priority is going to be: downtown business owners (including the ad hoc community center Good Earth), downtown business property owners (starting with owners of the vacant stores), Sustainable Fairfax, a few elected officials, any active preservation organizations, and residents.
Each town may prioritize different stakeholders, but generally, they are often a a mix of residents, small business owners, major corporations/industries in town, business property owners, elected government officials, preservation organizations, financial institutions, civic groups, schools, media, community organizations, planning commissions, religious institutions, et al.
>> Create a formal Main Streets organization from the get-go, even if it seems overly bureaucratic. It makes a big difference in community perception, discipline for the steering committee (aka “early champions”), program momentum, funding, and so on. In some cases, IF missions are totally aligned, it can be housed within an existing organization. (We are secretly thinking Sustainable Fairfax may be a good fit.)
Allow 12 months to get the Main Streets organization set up. You can get started on various programs or events in the meantime, but allow this long to engage enough of the community.
>> Customize the timeline and order of implementation. A general process for starting a Main Streets program is documented, but really every town is unique. Depending on how go-getter the initial champions are and how receptive the community is, it can be put on a fast track…or it can take years and years.
We’re thinking it would be best to have the Fairfax program be community-driven from the start, and focus on the vacancies in town, since that’s what everyone seems to be talking about. I’d like to see how broad a group of initial supporters we can get.
>> Do some advanced digging. This is from the handbooks, and definitely more “advanced” work, but we could also check out:
- Population census: comparing today vs 10 years ago
- Retail Trade census: comparing today vs 5 years go
- Real estate value trends
- Sales tax reports
- Other analysis done by others (e.g., Chevron from when they were considering locating here)
Lots to do!